PORCINE HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME
Although Porcine Hemorrhagic Syndrome (PHS) is not a new
condition, it is one which continues to plague pig producers.
This syndrome primarily affects two different age groups
of pigs; newborn to 2-3 days of age and recently-weaned
pigs. Newborn pigs with PHS have excessive bleeding of
the umbilicus and rapidly become anemic;
hence the synonyms "naval-bleeding" or "pale-piglet
syndrome" are applicable. The recently-weaned pig
will bleed excessively from any type of skin trauma, including
bite wounds and injections. Additionally, these pigs may
be lame due to hemarthros1s or may develop large subcutaneous
hematomas. Producers with pigs experiencing PHS usually
have large numbers of pigs in each litter affected.
The recommended treatment is Vitamin K(menadione)
given parenterally at a recommended dose of 0.5 to 2.5
mg/kg for large animals.
The exact etiologic agent of this condition is unknown,
however possible causes which have been incriminated include:
(1) penthachlorophenol-treated wood shavings in the bedding,
(2) oral antibiotics which may interfere with the normal
intestinal flora, thus decreasing bacterial production
of Vitamin K, (3) diets high in long-chain fatty acids or
low in fat which may decrease the absorption of intestinal
Vitamin K, (4) mycotoxins in the feed, (5) Porcine cytomegalovi-rus,
and (6) Eperythrozoonsui s.
Affected animals have below normallevels of blood clotting
factors I I, VI I , IX and X (Vitamin K dependent factors)
as well as prolonged prothrom-bin(PT) and activated partial
thrombop1astin(APTT or APT) times. Anemia, due to blood
loss, has been reported, while platelet numbers and serum
levels of hepatic leakage enzymes are normal. The findings
are consistent with vitamin K deficiency (hypovita-minosis
K) or antagonism of Vit am in K ,
The recommended treatment is Vitamin K (menadione) given
parenteraily at a recommended dose of 0.5 to 2.5 mg/kg for
large animals. Pigs affected with this condition usually
respond rapidly to the treatment and the coagulopathy is
alleviated within several hours.
Liggett,A.D.: "Porcine Hemorrhagic Syndrome in Recently
Weaned Pigs." The Compendi-urn-Food An imal.
Vol. 11, No. 11, November 1989, pp. 1409-1413.
Penny, R.H.C.: "Naval Bleeding in Piglets and the
Pale Piglet Syndrome." Veterinary Annual.1980,
Dr. Randy White, Veterinary Pathologist